UK Cities Empire Environment (HIST 445.3)

Recent/Current Offerings

Syllabus / Public content Section Term Instructor
HIST 445 02 January 2018 James Clifford
HIST 445 02 January 2016


During the long nineteenth century, Britain emerged as a leading urban and industrial nation. Rapid urban development transformed local environments and the population suffered from the unhealthy living conditions brought by overcrowding and pollution. The cities, nonetheless, were phenomenal engines of wealth creation and helped increase Britain?s global influence. Continued industrial growth in Britain relied on overseas forests, farms, grasslands, plantations and mines to supply a growing assortment of raw materials, such as cotton, sugar, tallow, palm oil, guano, timber, wheat, tea, indigo and rubber. The vast expansion of Britain?s economic influence also coincided with the expansion of its empire. This set off a new era of ecological imperialism, as the British botanists, industrialists and officials helped reorder nature, both in the empire and in economically dependent regions. This course will explore the interconnected histories of urban industrial development, imperialism and environmental change at the local, regional and global scale.


3 credit units HIST at the 300-level.


Post-1815; Europe & Great Britain.

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